It is well accepted that Shaders have played a very important role in fast and effective visualization effects. After Vertex Shaders and Fragment Shaders, we have a very important Shader – **Geometry Shader**.

Fragment Shaders and Vertex Shaders are the building blocks of any rendering scene. But it would be very cumbersome and difficult to construct a complicated shape using ONLY vertex shaders and fragment shaders. This is because it is very difficult to code details of each and every vertex. Hence, we have with us the Geometry Shader. A Geometry Shader takes the whole primitive as input and produces a geometry which can then be used as a block rather than handling each and every vertex separately.

A geometry shader can be thought of as vertex amplifier, that is, it helps in rendering more vertices than what it actually would take to do it using Vertex and Fragment Shaders. Thus as given in the example here, only a single instance of Points would render different shapes. This is helpful in complicated rendering scenes, like rain, fireworks etc.

But all of this comes with some limitations. A geometry shader is slow compared to normal rendering and this is not that big a surprise. Also, as described here, there is a limit to the number of primitives I can use per input to Geometry Shader. The limit given here is 1024. This may vary over systems but the message is that we can not use it for too big data.

**Is this useful for us?**

*dipy* requires rendering complicated data with a large number of vertices. I have not fully explored the possibilities in Geometry Shader but I am sure this would be very helpful to us. GS would make it easy to code the vertices of the data. This does compromise the speed but that must be marginal. More would be known after working with actual datasets.

**My approach now**

Currently, I am trying to replicate the example given here using python-vtk. This is a little bit tricky as I have never read examples of GS in python-vtk. I guess this would be completed after having a discussion with mentors and reading relevant documentation.